Glossary

An A-Z glossary of technological  terminology.

A

Access control listsfurther filter access and traffic forwarding.

Agility and rapid deploymentIT department can focus on delivering knowledge.

Antivirus and anti-spywareProtects devices from malicious software.

Application protocolControls the way a web server and web client interacts.

B

BroadcastOne-to-all delivery used when all hosts on the same network need the same message at the same time.

Business DSLAvailable on various formats. SDSL is a popular choice and is similar to ADSL providing the same                                                  upload/download speeds.

C

CableThe Internet data signal travels along the same coaxial cable that delivers cable TV. Provides a high bandwidth,                           always on connection to the Internet.

CellularCellular Internet uses a mobile network to connect. Wherever you get signal you can get the Internet.

Circuit-switch connection-oriented networksIf a link or device in a circuit fails the connection is dropped. When the                                                                                                   connection is picked back up again it is done so by using a different circuit.

Clients – Computer hosts that have software enabling them to request and display information obtained from another server.

Collaboration tool – A tool used to help people work together to achieve a common goal or objective. Work through a                                                   process, distribute pieces and tasks to involved parties and help coordinate activities.

ConvergenceThe state of a set of routers that have the same topology information about the internetwork in which they                                    operate.

D

Dail- up telephoneUses any phone line and modem.Has a low bandwidth, not sufficient for large data transfer.

Data interception and theftAn attack to capture private information from an organization.

Dedicated Firewall systemProvide advanced firewall capability, can filter large amounts of traffic.

Dedicated leased lineA dedicated connection from the SP to the customer.

Denial of serviceAn attack designed to slow down or crash applications and processes.

DHCPEnables automatic IPv4 address configuration for an end device.

DSLProvides a high bandwidth, always on connection to the Internet. It requires a special high-speed modem that                           separates the DSL signal from the telephone and provides an Ethernet connection to the host.

DynamicallyA variable or Constantly changing nature.

E

Email client and server – Clients use their mail client software, like Microsoft Outlook to access emails on the server.

End devices

  • Desktop computer.
  • Laptop.
  • Printer.
  • IP phone.
  • Wireless tablet.
  • Telepresence endpoint.

Ensuring availabilityThe Assurance of timely and reliable access to data services for authorized people.

Ensuring confidentialityOnly the intended and authorized users can access and read the data.

F

Fault ToleranceLimits the impact of failure ensuring the fewest number of devices are impacted.

File client and server – Stores files to the clients device and accessing the file with client software attached to Windows                                                    Explorer.

FiniteLimited to size or extent.

Firewall applianceSecures outgoing and incoming traffic.

Firewall filteringBlocks unauthorized access to the network.

G

H

Hacker attackA knowledgeable person attacks user devices or network resources.

HardwarePhysical part of the computer including electronics.

HierarchicalArranged in order of rank.

Hosts – Can send and receive messages on the network.

I

Identity theftAn attack to steal login information of a user to then access private data.

InfrastructureA basic system and service.

IntegratedCombining or coordinating separate elements to provide harmonious, interrelated whole.

Interface A specialized port on an internetworking device connected to an individual network.

Intermediary devices

  • Wireless router.
  • LAN switch.
  • Router.
  • Multi layer switch.
  • Firewall appliance.

Internet protocolFormats segments turning them into packets and giving them the correct address before moving them on.

Intrusion prevention systemIdentifies fast spreading threats like Zero-day or Zero-hour attacks.

IOE – Brings people together, process data and make network connections more relevant  and valuable. Turning information              into actions creating new capabilities.

IP addressTogether with the subnet mask, identifies end devices on the internetwork.

J

K

KernelManages communication between the hardware and software.

L

LAN – A network infrastructure that provides access to users and end devices in a small geographical area.

Logical topology diagramIdentifies devices, ports and IP addressing schemes.

M

MAN – A network infrastructure that spans a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. Typically operated by                 single large organizations.

Maintaining communication integrityAssuring the information hasn’t been altered in transmission from origin to destination.

Metro EthernetTypically available over a dedicated copper or fibre connection from the SP to the customer.

MulticastOne-to-many delivery of the same message to a group of hosts.

N

Network access protocolAre two functions communication over data link and physical transmission of data.

Network interface cardA NIC or LAN adapter provides a physical connection to a network at a PC or a host device.

Network media

  • Wireless media.
  • LAN media.
  • WAN media.

O

One-to-allA message sent to a group of people.

One-to-manyA message sent to a group of people.

One-to-one Messaging between two people.

Organizational flexibilityCan access the information anytime and anyplace.

OrientedTailored or adapted to specific circumstances.

P

Packed-switched NetworksA single message is broken down into packets with address information attached.

Physical portA media is connected to a host or network device by either a connector or outlet.

Physical topology diagramIdentifies the physical location of intermediary devices, configured ports and cables.

Q

QoSHelps to ensure the quality of services provided on the Internet.

R

Reduced cost of infrastructureTechnology is moved from on-site to a cloud provider.

RedundancyMultiple paths to one destination.

RouterForwards data packets to and from the Internet.

S

SAN – A network infrastructure designed to support file servers and provide data storage, retrieval and replication.

SatelliteA good option for those who don’t have access to DSL or Cable.

ScalabilityA scalable network can expand quickly to support new information without impacting performance.

Servers – Are hosts that have software installed enabling them to provide information to other hosts on the network.

ShellThe interface that allow users to request tasks from the computer in either CLI or GUI.

Spyware and adwareSoftware installed on a users device that secretly collects information on the user.

Subnet maskDetermines which part of a large network is used by an IP address.

SwitchConnects end devices to each other.

T

The Internet – A network of networks.

Transport protocolManages each conversation individually between the web server and web client.

TraverseTravels across, through, back, forth or sideways.

TopologyA diagram showing a network map.

U

UnicastOne-to-one delivery.

V

Virtual InterfaceNo physical hardware on the device associated with it.

Virtual private networksProvides a secure access to remote work.

viruses, worms and Trojan horseMalicious software and arbitrary code on a user device.

W

WAN – A network infrastructure that provides access to other networks over a wide geographical area.

Web client and server – A web server runs server software and clients use their browser software, like Windows Internet                                                      Explorer to access web pages.

Wireless access point – A radio transmitter capable of connecting end devices wirelessly.

WLAN – Similar to a LAN but wirelessly interconnects user and end points in a small geographical area.

X

Y

Z

Zero-day or zero-hour attacksAn attack that occurs on the first day a vulnerability becomes known.